November 12, 2019


Australia, Canada and Norway are three globally significant fossil fuel exporters that have implemented considerably different national climate mitigation policies.

Norway developed an early, broad, diverse and durable suite of climate policies compared to Australia and Canada. This working paper explores what caused this variation in climate policy, why responses from sympathetic governments were able to make headway and entrench policies in some cases but not others, and what Canada can do to ensure that future climate policy is more durable and ambitious.


Written by Nathan Lemphers, Ph.D, Department of Political Science at the University of Toronto. This project was supported in part through the Smart Prosperity Institute Research Network and its Greening Growth Partnership, which is supported by a Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada Partnership Grant (no. 895-2017-1018), as well as the Economics and Environmental Policy Research Network (EEPRN).